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Two silica phenolic nozzle liners cracked during proof testing. The test consisted of pressuring the nozzles to 14.1 MPa (2050 psia) for 5 to 20 s. It was concluded that the failure was due to longitudinal cracking in the convergent exhaust-nozzle insulators, stemming from the use of silica phenolic tape produced from flawed materials that went undetected by the quality control tests, which at the time, assessed tape strength properties in the warp rather than the bias direction. Once the nozzle manufacturer and its suppliers identified the problem, they changed their quality control procedures and resumed production of nozzle liners with more tightly controlled fiber/fabric materials.

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M. Katcher, Failure Analysis of Silica Phenolic Nozzle Liners, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019,

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