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A longeron assembly constructed of Alclad 2024, some parts being in the T3 condition, others in the T42 condition, failed at a rivet hole. Plastic deformation at the crack site was found, but no plastic deformation was found in similar failed components. It was concluded that the numerous hairline cracks in the Alclad layer adjacent to the main fracture were fatigue cracks. In another case, bonded samples of 2024-T3 sheet were fatigue tested at various stress levels. Failures could be separated into three groups: those that failed in the adhesive bond, those that failed in the base material, and those that exhibited a dual failure. The last category failed in the adhesive bond and also showed a type of pitting on one face of the base material. In a third case, a 2024-T4 extrusion section was found to exhibit blistering after chemical milling. The presence of interconnecting microcracks between adjacent discontinuities supported a hydrogen blistering diagnosis.

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H.V. Pellegrini, C.M. Bishop, J.M. Bennett, Uncommon Failures in Aluminum Alloys, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019,

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