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Airfoil-shape impingement cooling tubes were fabricated of 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick Hastelloy X sheet stock, then pulse-laser-beam butt welded to cast Hastelloy X base plugs. Each weldment was then inserted through the base of a hollow cast turbine blade for a jet engine. The weldments were finally secured to the bases of the turbine blades by a brazing operation. One of the laser beam attachment welds broke after a 28-h engine test run. Exposure of the fracture surface for study under the electron microscope revealed the joint had broken in stress rupture. Failure was caused by tensile overload from stress concentration at the root of the laser beam weld, which was caused by the sharp notch created by the lack of full weld penetration. Radiographic inspection of all cooling-tube weldments was made mandatory, with rejection stipulated for joints containing subsurface weld-root notches. In addition, all turbine blades containing cooling-tube weldments were reprocessed by back-brazing. Back brazed turbine blades were reinstalled in the engine and withstood the full 150-h model test run without incident.

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Failure of a Laser Beam Attachment Weld Because of Inadequate Penetration in Joint Between Cooling Components for a Jet Turbine Blade, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019,

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