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Countersunk riveted joints in aluminum sheet are widely employed in the aircraft industry. The preparation of the sheet for the riveting process consists either of countersinking where the sheet is sufficiently thick or of dimpling. Metallographic assessment of dimple defects is described in specimens made of clad aluminum sheet of alloy type AlZnMgCu1.5. Addressed are a dimple with partially missing stamped surface (bell-mouth), a cylindrical prominence because the dimpling force was too great and the stamping cylinder force too low, and a dimple with flashes at the top surfaces of the sheet as a result of play between the stamping cylinder and the anvil head (ringed dimple). Frequently, overlapping of several defects occurs, especially with steel or titanium sheet, with the result that it is difficult to identify the defects.

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Ruth Wittig, Jürgen Rickel, Dimpling of Aluminium Sheet, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Air and Spacecraft, ASM International, 2019,

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