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The results of a failure analysis of a series of Cr-Mo-V steel turbine studs which had experienced a service lifetime of some 50,000 h are described. It was observed that certain studs suffered complete fracture while others showed significant defects located at the first stress bearing thread. Crack extension was the result of marked creep embrittlement and reverse temper embrittlement (RTE). Selected approaches were examined to assess the effects of RTE on the material toughness of selected studs. It was observed that Auger electron microscopy results which indicated the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled and a non-embrittled material was such that no clear decision of the toughness properties was possible by this approach. The initial results obtained from small punch testing showed good agreement with other reported data and could be related to the FATT. Indeed, this small punch test, combined with a miniature sample sampling method, represents an attractive approach to the toughness assessment of critical power plant components.

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J.J. Hickey, J.H. Bulloch, Failure Analysis of a Set of 1CrMoV Studs From a Steam Turbine and Techniques for Its Assessment, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Power Generating Equipment, ASM International, 2019,

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