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A forged 4130 steel cylindrical permanent mold, used for centrifugal casting of gray- and ductile-iron pipe, was examined after pulling of the pipe became increasingly difficult. In operation, the mold rotated at a predetermined speed in a centrifugal casting machine while the molten metal, flowing through a trough, was poured into the mold beginning at the bell end and ending with the spigot end being poured last. After the pipe had cooled, it was pulled out from the bell end of the mold, and the procedure was repeated. Investigation supported the conclusion that failure of the mold surface was...

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