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The failure of a 90-10 cupronickel heat exchanger tube resulted in flooding of the vessel and subsequently sinking it. The corrosion of the cupronickel alloy was facilitated by the high sulfur content of the seawater in which it operated. The failure modes were anodic dissolution and copper reprecipitation.

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A. O. Ibidunni, J. C. Bookwalter, D. A. Guenther, Corrosion Failure of a Heat Exchanger in a Marine Engine, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Offshore, Shipbuilding, and Marine Equipment, ASM International, 2019,

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