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Abstract

During natural gas drilling in the EMS region in 1956, considerable numbers of longitudinal cracks and transverse fractures occurred in the connecting pieces of the bore rods. The connectors were screwed onto the rods by means of a fine thread and tightly joined with it by shrinkage at 530 deg C. The connectors were made of SAE 4140 Cr-Mo steel. The material for the rod pipes was Fe-0.4C-1Mn steel. Structural stresses played a role in the cracking. Iron sulfide formed on the fracture planes and flake-like stress cracks occurred in the steel. The hydrogen sulfide content of the gas was the cause of damage. Hydrogen liberated by reaction with the iron caused the formation of iron sulfide after penetration of the steel, which had an explosive effect during molecular separation under high pressure. This in turn caused the crack formation in conjunction with the external and residual stresses.

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Friedrich Karl Naumann, Ferdinand Spies, 2019. "Damage to Tool Joints in Hydrogen Sulfide-Carrying Natural Gas Drilling Operation", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Oil and Gas Production Equipment

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