A closed-loop hot water heating system at a museum in South Carolina was the subject of failure evaluation. The system consisted of plain carbon steel pipes (Schedule 40) made of ASTM A 106 or A 53 (ERW or seamless). The supply and return lines were made of the same materials. The fittings were mechanically threaded assemblies. Temperatures ranged from 150 to 155 deg F (65.6 to 68.3 deg C). Leaks in the system had reportedly initiated immediately after the building had been placed in service. The cause of corrosion inside the steel pipes was attributed to tuberculation caused by oxygen concentration cells and oxygen-pitting related corrosion. Both types of corrosion are due to the poor quality of the water and the lack of corrosion control in the water system.
A.H. Khan, Corrosion of Steel Pipes in a Closed-Loop Hot Water Heating System, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Buildings, Bridges, and Infrastructure, ASM International, 2019, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001701
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