Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


A T-piece from a copper hot water system failed. Microscopic examination of a polished section revealed a main crack and branching transcrystalline cracks running from the outer surface of the pipe into the pipe wall. The crack appearance indicated disintegration by stress-corrosion cracking. Although copper is not susceptible in the pure state, it is prone to stress-corrosion cracking under tensile stress in the presence of other elements in a damp ammoniacal atmosphere. The material was not defective, but a phosphorus-deoxidized copper type. The residual phosphorus combined with oxygen to form phosphorus pentoxide. Hard soldering in turn prevented the formation of cuprous oxide, and hydrogen embrittlement occurred.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal