Failures of Upset Butt Welds in Hardenable High-Carbon Steel Wire Because of Martensite Formation and Poor Wire-End Preparation
Extra high strength zinc-coated 1080 steel welded wire was wound into seven-wire cable strands for use in aerial cables and guy wires. The wires and cable strands failed tensile, elongation, and wrap tests, with wires fracturing near welds at 2.5 to 3.5% elongation and through the welded joints in wrap tests. The welded wire was annealed by resistance heating. The wire ends had a chisel shape, produced by the use of sidecutters. Tests of the heat treatment temperatures showed that the wire near the weld area exceeded 775 deg C (1425 deg F). Metallographic examination revealed martensite present in the weld area after the heat treatment. The test failures of the AISI 1080 steel wire butt-welded joints were due to martensite produced in cooling from the welding operation that was not tempered adequately in postweld heat treatment, and to poor wire-end preparation for welding that produced poorly formed weld burrs. The postweld heat treatment was standardized on the 760 deg C (1400 deg F) transformation treatment. The chisel shape of the wire ends was abandoned in favor of flat filed ends. The wrap test was improved by adopting a hand-cranked device. Under these conditions, the welded joints withstood the tensile and wrap tests.
2019. "Failures of Upset Butt Welds in Hardenable High-Carbon Steel Wire Because of Martensite Formation and Poor Wire-End Preparation", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Buildings, Bridges, and Infrastructure
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