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A 208 cm (82 in.) ID steel aqueduct (ASTM A572, grade 42, type 2 steel) fractured circumferentially at two points 152 m (500 ft) apart in a section above ground. A year later, another fracture occurred in a buried section 6.4 km (4 mi) away. Both pipes fractured during Jan at similar temperatures and pressures. The pipe had a 24 mm wall thickness, and the hydrostatic head was 331 m (1085 ft). The air temperature was approximately -13 deg C (9 deg F), the water temperature approximately 0.6 deg C (33 deg F), and the steel temperature approximately -4...

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