Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


Metallography is an important component of failure analysis. In the case of a liquid metal embrittlement (LME) failure it is usually conclusive if a third phase constituent can be formed inside of the cracks after failure. In the case where it is necessary to characterize the third phase material, one can use various x-ray spectrographic techniques in conjunction with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study describes those metallographic and SEM analysis techniques for determining the mode of failure for a locomotive traction motor by LME.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register

B.M. Wilson, W.N. Weins, Metallographic Characterization of Liquid Metal Embrittlement in a Failed Locomotive Axle, ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Rail and Rolling Stock, ASM International, 2019,

Download citation file:

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal