An Inconel-clad SA-212 Grade B carbon steel inlet cone with an anticipated 25-year service life failed in a localized area after only seven years of service. The failure was caused by an erosion/corrosion leak at the midsection. Erosion/corrosion was confined to a localized area directly facing the steam inlet nozzle. The Inconel cladding was intact elsewhere in the inlet cone with insignificant corrosion-related degradation. In the absence of the conditions that led to erosion/corrosion, the Inconel clad carbon steel was considered adequate for the intended service. As a corrective measure, a solid Inconel liner was recommended in the areas of direct steam impingement.
D. G. Chakrapani, 2019. "Failure of an Inconel Clad Carbon Steel Inlet Cone of the Pandia Digester", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Pulp and Paper Processing Equipment
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