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An Inconel-clad SA-212 Grade B carbon steel inlet cone with an anticipated 25-year service life failed in a localized area after only seven years of service. The failure was caused by an erosion/corrosion leak at the midsection. Erosion/corrosion was confined to a localized area directly facing the steam inlet nozzle. The Inconel cladding was intact elsewhere in the inlet cone with insignificant corrosion-related degradation. In the absence of the conditions that led to erosion/corrosion, the Inconel clad carbon steel was considered adequate for the intended service. As a corrective measure, a solid Inconel liner was recommended in the areas of direct steam impingement.

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D. G. Chakrapani, 2019. "Failure of an Inconel Clad Carbon Steel Inlet Cone of the Pandia Digester", ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories: Pulp and Paper Processing Equipment

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