Cracking in a Yankee Dryer Shell
Cracking was found in the heads on large Yankee dryers, large, cylindrical, rotating, pressurized, high-temperature, cast iron pressure vessels (ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels), used to remove moisture from sheets of tissue paper during manufacturing. The typical components consist of a cast iron shell, two cast iron concave heads, and a large cast iron internal center stay attached to journals. The heads are attached to the shell and center stay with high-strength bolts. FEA and metallurgical investigation supported the conclusion that the cracking was caused by an unexpected type of load placed on the machine, namely corrosion product buildup at the head/shell interface causing the joint to displace open. It was also found that compressive bolting loads could slightly open the head/shell interface at the periphery. Recommendations included design changes in the head/shell joint, and detailed preventive maintenance inspection procedures were also suggested.