Shell and Head Cracking in Gray Cast Iron Paper Machine Dryer Rolls
Several cases of failures in gray cast iron paper machine dryer rolls were evaluated. The rolls were found have ground outer cylindrical surfaces on which the paper web is dried. They were found to rotate about their longitudinal axes at speeds from 50 to 250 rpm while containing saturated steam from 35 to 380 kPa. Failures were found to occur in the shell body, in a head near a hand hole or a manhole opening, or in a head near the journal-to-head interface. A cleavage fracture was revealed by scanning electron microscopy regardless of the driving stress for failure. Fracture surface were found to exhibit chevron marks typical of fatigue or raised points or tears pointing in the direction of the probable origin of failure. The characteristics of the thinwall cast iron structures like the variation in composition due to pouring from multiple ladles, variation in solidification rates, and variation in tensile strength to be noted during inspection were described.