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Gears in a strip mining dragline failed in service. The material was identified as a low-alloy (NiCrMoV) steel. SEM analysis indicated that the initial fracture and subsequent fractures resulted from impact or a suddenly applied load. Mechanical testing indicated that the gears had low impact strength. Failure was attributed to low toughness caused by the absence of, or improper, heat treatment. Casting defects identified during metallographic examination were determined to be the fracture initiation site, but were considered less significant than the low as-received impact strength of the material. It was recommended that the equipment manufacturer implement an appropriate heat treatment to meet the impact requirements of the application.

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George M. Goodrich, Failure of Four Cast Steel Gear Segments, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 45–52,

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