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A carbon steel ball-peen hammer ejected a chip that struck the user's eye. Failure occurred when two hammers were struck together during an attempt to free a universal joint from an automotive drive shaft. Two samples were cut from the face of the hammer one through the chipped area on the chamfer and the other from the undamaged area on the chamfer. The shape and texture of the fracture surfaces were typical of spalling. The fracture was conchoidal and exhibited a complete lack of plastic deformation. White etching bands that intersected the face and chamfer were revealed during metallographic examination. Fracture occurred through a white band. Failure was attributed to formation of envelopes of untempered martensite under the chamfer that ruptured explosively during service.

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Carmine D'Antonio, Spalling of a Ball-Peen Hammer, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 467–469,

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