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The first-stage nozzles of a high-pressure turbine section of an industrial gas turbine exhibited leading and trailing-edge deterioration. The nozzles were made of X-40, a cobalt-base alloy, and were aluminide coated. Failure analysis determined that the deterioration was the result of hot corrosion caused by a combination of contaminants, cooling-hole blockage, and coating loss.

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Sarah Jane Hahn, Hot Corrosion of Stage 1 Nozzles in an Industrial Gas Turbine, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 502–505,

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