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Two superheater tubes from a 6.2 MPa (900 psig) boiler failed in service because of creep rupture. One tube was carbon steel and the other was carbon steel welded to ASTM A213 Grade T22 (2.25Cr-1.0Mo) tubing. The failure in the welded tube occurred in the carbon steel section. Portions of the superheater were retubed five years previously with Grade 722 material. The failures indicated that tubes were exposed to long-term overheating conditions. While the carbon steel tube did not experience temperatures above the lower transformation temperature 727 deg C (1340 deg F), the welded tube did experience a temperature peak in excess of 727 deg C (1340 deg F). The long-term overheating conditions could have been the result of excessive heat flux and /or inadequate steam flow. In addition, the entire superheater bank should have been upgraded to Grade 722 material at the time of retubing.

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Joseph P. Ribble, Failure of Carbon Steel Superheater Tubes, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 177–180,

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