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Waterwall tube failure samples removed from a coal- and oil-fired boiler in service for 12 years exhibited localized underdeposit corrosion and hydrogen damage. EDS and XRD revealed that bulk internal deposits collected from the tubes contained metallic copper which can accelerate corrosion through galvanic effects and can promote hydrogen damage. Ultrasonic testing was recommended to locate tubes with severe gouging and corrosion, which are suspect locations for hydrogen damage. The source of the copper should be identified and future chemical cleaning of the boiler should address its presence in the waterwall tubes.

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Sarah Jane Hahn, Jimmy D. Wiser, Hydrogen Damage of Waterwall Tubes, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 490–492,

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