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Copper alloy (C83600) impellers from two different feed pumps that supplied water to a 2-year-old boiler failed repeatedly. Examination by various methods indicated that the failures were caused by sulfide attack that concentrated in shrinkage voids in the castings. Two alternatives to prevent future failures were recommended: changing the impeller composition to a cast stainless steel, or implementing stricter nondestructive evaluation requirements for copper alloy castings.

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G. Mark Tanner, Corrosion Failure of Four Pump Impellers, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 261–265,

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