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A 150 mm (6 in.) diam, 1.6 mm (0.065 in.) thick alloy 800 1iner from an internal bypass line in a hydrogen reformer was removed from a waste heat boiler because of severe metal loss. Visual and metallographic examinations of the liner indicated severe metal wastage on the inner surface, along with sooty residue. Patterns similar to those associated with erosion/corrosion damage were observed. Microstructural examination of wasted areas revealed a bulk matrix composed of massive carbides, indicating that gross carburization and metal dusting had occurred. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the carbides were primarily chromium based (Cr23C7 and Cr7C3). The sooty substance was identified as graphite. Wasted areas were ferromagnetic and the degree of ferromagnetism was directly related to the degree of wastage. Three actions were recommended: (1) inspection of the waste heat boiler to determine the extent of metal damage in other areas by measuring the degree of ferromagnetism, (2) replacement of metal determined to be magnetic, and (3) closer monitoring of temperatures in the region of the reformer furnace outlet.

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Richard L. Colwell, Gaseous Corrosion of a Heat-Resistant Alloy (Metal Dusting), Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 351–353,

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