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Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws that were part of a slide valve assembly on a regenerator line in a petrochemical plant failed during initial loading. Metallographic and XDS chemical analysis in conjunction with SEM examination of one failed and one unfailed cap screw indicated that the screws had failed by hydrogen embrittlement. The plating process was the likely source of the hydrogen. It was recommended that the remainder of the cap screws from the same lot as the failed screws be baked at approximately 190 deg C (375 deg F) for 24 h.

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G. Mark Tanner, Hydrogen Embrittlement Failure of Socket Head Cap Screws, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 332–334,

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