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A brass (CDA alloy 230) pipe nipple that was part of a domestic cold water bath system failed two weeks after installation. Macrofractography, SEM examination, metallography, and chemical analyses were performed on specimens cut through the main fracture surface. The physical and background evidence obtained indicated failure due to cracking initiated by stamped markings on the pipe wall and extended by high circumferential residual stresses. It was recommended that annealed pipe be used.

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Carmine D'Antonio, Failure of a Brass Pipe Nipple, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 157–158,

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