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Two complete aircraft undercarriage-leg 2014 aluminum alloy forgings and a number of sectional ends that exhibited cracks during nondestructive testing were examined to determine the extent of damage and the type of cracking. Cracks were primarily confined to the diaphragm and adjoining wall between the steel sleeve and the steel diaphragm washer. Metallographic analysis and accelerated corrosion tests showed that the cracks had originated as stress-corrosion failures.

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J.O. Edwards, W.A. Pollard, J.J. Sebisty, 1992. "Cracking of Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Undercarriage Forgings", Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Khlefa A. Esaklul

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