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Two Z-shape impeller vanes failed. The vane material was 14-hard type 301 stainless steel. The vanes were of two-piece construction, with a longitudinal weld. Analyses indicated that the vanes had not been solution annealed after welding, leaving the heat-affected zone above the welds in a highly sensitized state. The sensitized material lost corrosion resistance, became embrittled along the grain boundaries, and finally failed by intergranular cracking. Use of type 410 martensitic stainless steel was recommended.

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Harry E. Ebert, Intergranular Cracking and Failure of Stainless Steel Vanes from a Closed, Riveted Impeller, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 278–283,

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