Creep crack growth and fracture toughness tests were performed using test material machined from a seam welded ASTM A-155-66 class 1 (2.25Cr-1Mo) steel steam pipe that had been in service for 15 years. The fracture morphology was examined using SEM fractography. Dimpled fracture was found to be characteristic of fracture toughness specimens. Creep crack growth generally followed the fusion line region and was characterized as dimpled fracture mixed with cavities. These fracture morphologies were similar to those of an actual steam pipe. It was concluded that creep crack growth behavior was the prime failure mechanism of seam-welded steam pipes.
The failure of a 45 Mg (50 ton) rail crane bolster was investigated. Spectrochemical analysis indicated that the material was a 0.25C-1.24Mn-0.62Cr-0.24Mo cast steel. SEM examination revealed the presence of fatigue, as well as intergranular and ductile fractures. Microstructural analysis focused on an area where an antisway device had been welded to the structure and revealed the presence of coarse, untempered martensite that had resulted from faulty weld repair techniques. It was suggested that the use of proper welding procedures, including preheating and postheating, would have prevented the failure.