Failure Analysis and Prevention
The quantitative characterization of fracture surface geometry, that is, quantitative fractography, can provide useful information regarding the microstructural features and failure mechanisms that govern material fracture. This article is devoted to the fractographic techniques that are based on fracture profilometry. This is followed by a section describing the methods based on scanning electron microscope fractography. The article also addresses procedures for three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction. In each case, sufficient methodological details, governing equations, and practical examples are provided.