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This article provides a background of friction-bearing failures due to overheating. The failures of locomotive axles caused by overheated traction-motor support bearings are discussed. The article also describes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) in steel. It examines the results of various axle studies, with illustrations and concludes with information on the simulation of the LME mechanism.

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George F. Vander Voort, 2002. "Failures of Locomotive Axles", Failure Analysis and Prevention, William T. Becker, Roch J. Shipley

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