Failure Analysis and Prevention
This article reviews photographic principles, namely, visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation, as applied to failure analysis and the specific techniques employed in both the field and laboratory. It provides information on the photographic equipment used in failure analysis and on film and digital photography. The article describes the basics of photography and the uses of different types of lighting in photography of a fractured surface. The article also addresses the techniques involved in macrophotography and microscopic photography as well as other special techniques.