The operator of an electric transit system purchased a large number of tin-plated copper connectors, putting some in service and others in reserve. Later, when some of the reserve connectors were inspected, the metal surfaces were covered with spots consisting of an ash-like powder and the plating material had separated from the substrate in many areas. Several connectors, including some that had been in service, were examined to determine what caused the change. The order stated that the connectors were to be coated with a layer of tin-bismuth (2% Bi) to guard against tin pest, a type of degradation...
Neil Douglas Burns, A Tin Pest Failure, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 3, Edited By Larry Berardinis, ASM International, 2019, p 642–646, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
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