A tie rod, nut, and bellows from a failed 610 mm (24 in.) diam tied universal expansion joint that carried tail gases consisting of N2 + O2 with slight traces of nitrogen oxides and water were examined. The materials were SA 193-B7 (AISI 4140), SA 194–214, and Incoloy 800H, respectively. Visual examination of the bellows revealed cracks in heavily cold-worked areas (both inside and outside) and considerable corrosion. SEM analysis showed a classical intergranular failure pattern with microcracking. The threaded tie rod microstructure contained spheroidized carbide that was more pronounced at the tie rod end of the...
Ralph D. Bowman, Failure of a Tied Universal Expansion Joint, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 1, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1992, p 347–348, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001105
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