A carbon-molybdenum (ASTM A209 Grade T1) steel superheater tube section in an 8.6 MPa (1250 psig) boiler cracked because of long-term overheating damage that resulted from prolonged exposure to metal temperatures between 482 deg C (900 deg F) and 551 deg C (1025 deg F). The outer diameter of the tube exhibited a crack (fissure) oriented approximately 45 deg to the longitudinal axis and 3.8 cm (1.5 in.) long. The inner diameter surface showed a fissure in the same location and orientation. Microstructure at the failure near the outer diameter surface exhibited evidence of creep cracking and creep void...
David J. Kotwica, Graphitization-Related Failure of a Low-Alloy Steel Superheater Tube, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 2, Edited By Khlefa A. Esaklul, ASM International, 1993, p 201–203, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
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