Chapter 8: Melting, Casting, and Powder Metallurgy
Casting is the most economical processing route for producing titanium parts, and unlike most metals, the properties of cast titanium are on par with those of wrought. This chapter covers titanium melting and casting practices -- including vacuum arc remelting, consumable electrode arc melting, electron beam hearth melting, rammed graphite mold casting, sand casting, investment casting, hot isostatic pressing, weld repair, and heat treatment -- along with related equipment, process challenges, and achievable properties and microstructures. It also explains how titanium parts are produced from powders and how the different methods compare with each other and with conventional production techniques. The methods covered include powder injection molding, spray forming, additive manufacturing, blended elemental processing, and rapid solidification.
Melting, Casting, and Powder Metallurgy, Titanium: Physical Metallurgy, Processing, and Applications, Edited By F.H. Froes, ASM International, 2015, p 161–205, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
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