This article discusses the wrought product forms of titanium and titanium-base alloys, which include forgings and the typical mill products with tabulations for various specifications, and compares specifications for pure titanium, titanium alloys for mechanical, physical properties and chemical properties, including chemical composition, corrosion resistance, and chemical reactivity. The article discusses the effects of alloying elements in titanium alloys, and describes the classes of titanium alloys, namely, alpha alloys, alpha-beta alloys, and beta alloys. It also describes the typical applications of various titanium-base materials, and explains the crystal structure, effect of impurities, and microstructural constituents of titanium alloys. The article provides a brief description on the processing of wrought titanium alloys, including primary fabrication in which ingots are converted into general mill products and secondary fabrication (forging, extrusion, forming, machining, chemical milling and joining) of finished shapes from mill products and the heat treatment of titanium alloys.
S. Lampman, Wrought Titanium and Titanium Alloys, Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol 2, ASM Handbook, By ASM Handbook Committee, ASM International, 1990, p 592–633, https://doi.org/10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001081
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