Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning fracture surfaces. It discusses damage characterization of metals, covering various factors that influence the damage, namely stress, aggressive environment, temperature, and discontinuities.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.
Don't already have an account? Register
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal