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The design and optimization of sheet metal forming operations is aided by tools and techniques that have been developed and refined over several decades. This chapter covers many of these methods and practices and explains where and how they are used. It begins by showing how the stress state at any point in a material can be expressed in different ways for different purposes. It then compares and contrasts some of the more widely used yield criteria and demonstrates the use of flow rules. It also explains how to calculate power, energy, and effective strain and strain rate and how hardening laws are used to predict strain-hardening behaviors.

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