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This chapter discusses various types of material fracture toughness and the methods by which they are determined. It begins with a review of the basic principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, covering the Griffith-Irwin theory of fracture, the concept of strain energy release rate, the use of fracture indices and failure criteria, and the ramifications of crack-tip plasticity in ductile and brittle fractures. It goes on to describe the different types of plain-strain and plane-stress fracture toughness, explaining how they are measured and how they are influenced by metallurgical and environmental variables and loading conditions. It also examines the...

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