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This chapter discusses the role of plastic deformation in forging and the effect of strain and strain rate on metal flow. It demonstrates the use of stress tensors and shows how metal flow can be represented qualitatively by the displacement of volume elements and quantitatively by the distribution of velocity components and strain rates. It describes the conditions associated with homogeneous deformation in a frictionless upset forging and explains how they can also be obtained using engineering and true stress-strain curves.

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