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This article presents six case studies of failures with steel forgings. The case studies covered are crankshaft underfill; tube bending; spade bit; trim tear; upset forging; and avoidance of flow through, lap, and crack. The case studies illustrate difficulties encountered in either cold forging or hot forging in terms of preforge factors and/or discontinuities generated by the forging process. Supporting topics that are discussed in the case studies include validity checks for buster and blocker design, lubrication and wear, mechanical surface phenomenon, forging process design, and forging tolerances. Wear, plastic deformation processes, and laws of friction are introduced as...

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