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Stainless steel pipe (273-mm OD x 8-mm wall thickness) used in the fabrication of large manifolds developed crack-like decohesions during a routine inductive bending procedure. The imperfections, which were found near the outside diameter, were around 3 mm in length oriented in the circumferential direction and penetrated nearly 2 mm into the pipe wall. The pipes were made of titanium-stabilized austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2. Six hypotheses were considered during the investigation, which ultimately concluded that the failure was caused by liquation cracking due to overheating.

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