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A type 304 stainless steel tube that failed in a boiler stack economizer was analyzed to determine the cause. The investigation consisted of visual, SEM/EDS, and metallographic analysis. Several degradation mechanisms appeared to be at work, including pitting corrosion, chloride stress corrosion cracking, and fatigue fracture. Investigators concluded that the primary failure mechanism was fatigue fracture, although either of the other mechanisms may have eventually caused the tube to fail in the absence of fatigue.

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Ryan J. Haase, Larry D. Hanke, Boiler Stack Economizer Tube Failure, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 3, Edited By Larry Berardinis, ASM International, 2019, p 507–514,

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