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A brackish water pump impeller was replaced after four years of service, while its predecessor lasted over 40 years. The subsequent failure investigation determined that the nickel-aluminum bronze impeller was not properly heat treated, which made the impeller susceptible to aluminum dealloying. The dealloying corrosion was exacerbated by erosion because the pump was slightly oversized. The investigation recommended better heat treating procedures and closer evaluation to ensure that new pumps are properly sized.

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Albert M. Olszewski, 2019. "Dealloying of a Nickel–Aluminum Bronze Impeller", Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Larry Berardinis

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