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A pipe in the lateral wall of a boiler powering an aircraft carrier flat-top boat failed during a test at sea. The pipe was made from ASTM 192 steel, an adequate material for the application. Microstructural analysis along with equipment operating records provided valuable insight into what caused the pipe to rupture. Although the pipe had been replaced just 50 h before the accident, the analysis revealed incrustations and corrosion pits on the inner walls and oxidation on the outer walls. Microstructural changes were also observed, indicating that the steel was exposed to high temperatures. The combined effect of pitting, incrustations, and phase transformations caused the pipe to rupture.

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Cassio Barbosa, Simone Kessler de Barros, Ibrahim de Cerqueira Abud, Joneo Lopes do Nascimento, Sheyla Santana de Carvalho, Failure Analysis of an Aqua Tubular Boiler Tube, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 3, Edited By Larry Berardinis, ASM International, 2019, p 283–288,

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