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A commercial hybrid-iron golf club fractured during normal use. The club fractured through its cast aluminum alloy hosel. Optical analysis revealed casting pores through 20% of the hosel thickness. Mechanical properties were determined from characterization results, then used to construct a finite element model to analyze material performance under failure conditions. In addition, a full scale structural test was conducted to determine failure strength. It was concluded that the club failed not from ground impact but from a force reversal at the bottom of the downswing. Large moments generated during the downswing aggravated by manufacturing defects and stress concentration combined to create an overload condition.

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Christopher A. Walton, Benjamin E. Nesbit, Henrique M. Candia, Zachary A. Myers, Wilburn R. Whittington, Tonya W. Stone, Failure Analysis and Mechanical Performance Evaluation of a Cast Aluminum Hybrid-Iron Golf Club Hosel, Handbook of Case Histories in Failure Analysis, Vol 3, Edited By Larry Berardinis, ASM International, 2019, p 208–216,

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