Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy
This article focuses on the principles and applications of high-sputter-rate dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for depth profiling and bulk impurity analysis. It begins with an overview of various factors pertinent to sputtering. This is followed by a discussion on the effects of ion implantation and electronic excitation on the charge of the sputtered species. The design and operation of the various instrumental components of SIMS is then reviewed. Details on a depth-profiling analysis of SIMS, the quantitative analysis of SIMS data, and the static mode of operation of time-of-flight SIMS are covered. Instrumental features required for secondary ion imaging are presented and the differences between quadrupole and high-resolution magnetic mass filters are described. The article also reviews the optimum method for analysis of nonmetallic samples and high detection sensitivity of SIMS. It ends with a discussion on a variety of examples of SIMS applications.