1-20 of 129 Search Results for

voltage contrast

Sort by
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2023) 25 (4): 28–34.
Published: 01 November 2023
...James Vickers; Blake Freeman; Neel Leslie A scanning electron microscope system measures voltage contrast on device-under-test surfaces. This article addresses a limited set of applications that rely on voltage contrast (VC) measurements in SEM systems, showing how VC measurements can probe...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (3): 19–30.
Published: 01 August 1999
...Victor Liang; Harlan Sur; Subhas Bothra Passive voltage contrast (PVC) has traditionally been used by semiconductor engineers for end-of-line post-mortem analysis. PVC distinguishes between open and short structures and is both nondestructive and noncontact. When applied during process development...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (3): 15–18.
Published: 01 August 2001
...Valluri Rao Voltage contrast, a phenomenon that occurs in scanning electron microscopes, produces brightness variations in SEM images that correspond to potential variations on the test sample. Through appropriate processing, voltage contrast signals can reveal an extensive amount of information...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (1): 20–23.
Published: 01 February 2007
...Michael Strizich Voltage contrast followed by electron beam induced current imaging is an effective approach for isolating IC failures. This article briefly reviews the physics of signal generation for both techniques and presents several examples illustrating how this powerful combination...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2011) 13 (3): 12–16.
Published: 01 August 2011
...Roger Nicholson; Ted Lundquist Laser voltage imaging (LVI) enables the global visualization of on-chip circuit activity for the purpose of localizing defects. In a manner reminiscent of e-beam voltage contrast, it allows analysts to visually trace signals through circuit logic in order to see where...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (3): 21–24.
Published: 01 August 1999
... are one of the most versatile tools for failure analysis if used to the full extent of their capabilities. Their operating modes include emissive imaging, backscattering, voltage contrast, EBIC or specimen current, and conductivity resistive mapping. The author describes each operating mode and presents...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (2): 14–20.
Published: 01 May 2006
...Magali Lamy; Marc de la Bardonnie; Frederic Lorut; Ryan Ross; Christophe Wyon; Laurens F. Tz. Kwakman This article assesses the capabilities of failure analysis techniques in the context of 65 nm CMOS ICs. It demonstrates the use of OBIRCH, voltage contrast, Seebeck effect imaging, SEM and TEM...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2009) 11 (2): 46–48.
Published: 01 May 2009
... challenge of visualizing the voltages inside the device. Voltage contrast allowed us to solve it. We had to manage a little bit of sample preparation: opening the package mostly ceramic and wet etching the boron-phosphorus silicate glass passivation layer. Then, static voltages at the top metal layer (only...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2005) 7 (4): 32–36.
Published: 01 November 2005
... experience difficulties in localizing the defect. Information on several techniques for localizing high-resistance defects, including infrared optical beam induced resistance change (IR-OBIRCH1] thermally induced voltage alteration (TIVA2] light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA3] resistive contrast imaging...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (3): 24–33.
Published: 01 August 2018
... After an environmental stress test, a metal-7 via chain from a copper plating recipe development wafer failed (open) and was analyzed. The failing via chain process monitor structures did not show passive voltage contrast (PVC) signals during the fab in-line electron beam inspections. The same condition...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2005) 7 (3): 32–33.
Published: 01 August 2005
.... Yao of IBM Microelectronics. Three papers were selected for the Outstanding Paper awards: Color Voltage Contrast: A New Method of Implementing Fault Contrast with Color Imaging Software by J.B. Colvin of WSI; Electrical Biasing and Voltage Contrast Imaging in a Focused Ion Beam System by A.N...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (2): 4–6.
Published: 01 May 2000
... collection image with potentials on the surface observed as a voltage contrast signal. The characteristic X-rays fluoresced by the incident electrons produce a spectrum identifying the elemental composition of a selected region. These X-rays can also form a map showing the distribution of elements within...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2009) 11 (2): 16–22.
Published: 01 May 2009
... imaging fault localization SEM-based nanoprobing voltage distribution contrast httpsdoi.org/10.31399/asm.edfa.2009-2.p016 EDFAAO (2009) 2:16-22 Fault Site Localization 1537-0755/$19.00 ©ASM International® Fault Site Localization Technique by Imaging with Nanoprobes Takeshi Nokuo, JEOL Ltd., Japan...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2011) 13 (3): 46–48.
Published: 01 August 2011
... in general use? Sometimes, new insights arise serendipitously from playing with an instrument in a what-if fashion. One evening, after I had finished a focused ion beam (FIB) voltage contrast analysis with our FEI FIB 800, I continued to try different conditions of scan speed and beam current. Out...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2007) 9 (2): 14–18.
Published: 01 May 2007
... at the 130 nm technology node. The macro itself consists of two copper metal combs, with a copper metal serpentine winding between the combs, and spans more than 4.5 × 106 m2. The failure site was localized using focused ion beam (FIB) voltage contrast to approximately a 1.5 m length of line (Fig. 4...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (1): 1–9.
Published: 01 February 2000
... defect. This contrasts favorably with less sensitive techniques _ _ d _ such as liquid crystal delineation that requires significant power dissipation and heat generation, and voltage contrast analysis that requires significant voltage application. Figure 2 shows the sensitivity of the EBIC technique...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (1): 4–12.
Published: 01 February 2016
... CONTRAST AT CONTACT LEVEL Based on the electrical FA findings obtained in case 1, a step-by-step deprocessing was performed to inspect the metal layers; no anomaly was observed. At contact/ ILD0 level, passive voltage contrast (PVC) was executed using SEM, confirming that the NMOS polysilicon gate...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2008) 10 (2): 12–18.
Published: 01 May 2008
... spatially, at least as long as the junction is larger than the optical wavelength (i.e., ~0.5 m), and it has been successfully applied to finding capacitance leakage. Despite the utility of OBIC, electrical probing with mechanical probes and electron-beam (e-beam) voltage-contrast techniques kept the SOM...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (2): 13–22.
Published: 01 May 1999
... for each of the nine failing SRAMs.) Dynamic voltage contrast analysis was performed on one of the failures using a Cambridge S-200 SEM. The word line identified with the diagnostic test data did not switch properly in the region corresponding to the failing bits. However the specific failure site...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2015) 17 (4): 14–20.
Published: 01 November 2015
... between the probe pads until it looked uniformly dark in the voltage contrast image. After cleaning, the surface was imaged briefly with the iodine gas valve closed, in an attempt to desorb the remaining iodine from the surface. CHOICE OF RESISTOR DIMENSIONS At microwave frequencies, the original...