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Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (4): 21–23.
Published: 01 November 1999
...William F. Filter Stress voiding is an insidious IC failure mechanism that can be difficult to identify and arrest. It is of particular concern to those who produce and test ICs with aluminum-alloy interconnects or who assess the reliability of legacy devices with long service life. This article...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (1): 20–23.
Published: 01 February 2000
...William F. Filter This is the second article in a two-part series on the causes of stress voiding and the evidence required to tie it to an IC interconnect failure. The first part, published in the November 1999 issue of EDFA, focuses on the causes and distinguishing characteristics of stress void...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (2): 12–14.
Published: 01 May 2016
...David Burgess Stress voiding has re-emerged as a concern in advanced metal systems with their reduced dimensions and multilayer designs. Unless analysts are familiar with the physics and history of stress voids in ICs, chances are they will go unnoticed. This article discusses the basic cause...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (2): 4–9.
Published: 01 May 2017
...Gert Vogel This is the second article in a two-part series investigating solder connection failures associated with BGA packages. Part I, in the February 2017 issue of EDFA, examines various cases of open and short circuit failures, discusses the formation of voids, and explains how to reveal...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (3): 4–8.
Published: 01 August 2016
...John Bescup This article explains how the failure of a high-voltage capacitor led to the discovery of an unusual defect. Testing showed that the capacitor shorted due to silver migration, which investigators believe was facilitated by voids in the dielectric that had been present from the time...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2016) 18 (1): 14–20.
Published: 01 February 2016
.... The investigators believe the joint was formed by thermal compression bonding with a preapplied underfill. The analysis also revealed the presence of voids and intermetallic compounds along with signs of filler entrapment. A detailed analysis based on FIB etching and SEM image capture was conducted on a flip...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (4): 4–12.
Published: 01 November 2018
... showing how it is used to detect stress induced voids, inspect wire bond interfaces, and examine through-silicon vias (TSVs) in the time-resolved mode. Engineers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems built and are testing a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2014) 16 (3): 14–19.
Published: 01 August 2014
... field failure. Irrefutable evidence of electromigration is clearly visible. Figure 2 shows additional details. Specifically, Fig. 1 shows dark spots in the wide collector contact. In Fig. 2, the dark spots are clearly voids or missing aluminum. Electron current flow in the collector is from the silicon...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (1): 4–8.
Published: 01 February 2017
.... In Part II, scheduled for the May 2017 issue of EDFA, the author delves deeper into the analysis of voids and presents an alternate FA approach that involves grinding away much of the PCB. This article is the first in a two-part series analyzing solder connection failures between BGA packages and PCB...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2021) 23 (2): 38–39.
Published: 01 May 2021
... using low voltage in the SEM in order to preserve these ULK layers, the deposition of any film, metal or compound, does not fill the etched cavities from the bottom up. Instead, the films pinch off at the top of the vias and tend to form a bridge over the cavity creating a void as shown on the right...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2013) 15 (1): 35–36.
Published: 01 February 2013
... metal-deposition step. Design and electrical test information was not available, so the analysis was significantly handicapped. The cause of the problem must explain the butterfly pattern. A sample from the right side, in a very low-yield wing of the butterfly, revealed voids in metal 1. The voids...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (3): 12–17.
Published: 01 August 2006
...-Montañés et al. measured resistance values for contact and via opens in a 180 nm CMOS process.[13] A significant distribution of opens lies in the M range. Figure 4 shows a via with a significant void (white region). Electrical contact is made through a small volume of copper remaining in the via...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2011) 13 (1): 4–11.
Published: 01 February 2011
...Nausha Asrar This article presents two case histories that shed light on the role of gold in lead-free solder joint failures and the damage mechanisms involved. One of the failures, a brittle fracture of the solder joint, is attributed to the synergistic effects of voids, intermetallic compounds...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2020) 22 (3): 18–25.
Published: 01 August 2020
... cracks or voids in microbumps within packages less than 30 microns in diameter. Furthermore, other categories of defects that are challenging in x-ray imaging are those within low Z materials. These include sidewall delamination between Si die and underfill; bulk cracks in the underfill, in organic...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2020) 22 (4): 20–25.
Published: 01 November 2020
... in ceramic chip capacitors and resistors, voids in a full-bridge rectifier, and a radiation-induced defect in a microprocessor. In cases involving counterfeit ICs, CSAM images reveal the presence of an abnormality on component packages, evidence of relabeling, and popcorn fractures indicative of the use...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2008) 10 (1): 24–29.
Published: 01 February 2008
... path for copper ions and therefore limits the lifetime of the interconnect system.[2,3] In the postmortem failure analysis, these kinds of samples are routinely investigated by FIB and SEM, documenting failing vias at the cathode end or opencircuit voiding along the tested metal lines. In this study...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2022) 24 (3): 32–40.
Published: 01 August 2022
... in which the system is used to reveal cracks in thin redistribution layers, voids in organic substrates, and variations in TSV metallization on 300-mm wafers. As the authors explain, each scan can be done in as little as a few minutes regardless of sample size, and the resulting images are clear...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2002) 4 (4): 11–16.
Published: 01 November 2002
... Interconnections Come From? The rising numbers of vias and contacts as well as higher performance demands increase the probability that a weak interconnection will produce a functional failure. Failing vias occur due to process related defects and have many sources. Via voiding, particulates, and via pushup have...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2020) 22 (3): 28–35.
Published: 01 August 2020
...Hiroki Mitsuta; Taiichi Takezaki; Kaoru Sakai; Kenta Sumikawa; Masakatsu Murai; Kotaro Kikukawa Scanning acoustic tomography (SAT) is widely used to detect defects such as voids and delamination in electronic devices. In this article, the authors explain how they improved the spatial resolution...
Journal Articles
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (1): 16–24.
Published: 01 February 2006
... the results, particularly the effect intermetallic formation, cracking, and voiding. Copyright © ASM International® 2006 2006 ASM International joint integrity lead-free soldering mechanical shock testing shear testing solder joints temperature cycling httpsdoi.org/10.31399/asm.edfa.2006-1...