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EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (1): 4–8.
Published: 01 February 2018
...Gert Vogel This article, the first of a two-part series, investigates the causes of failure in electromechanical relays. In Part I, the author examines contact-related failures due to the buildup of nonconductive particles and films and the effects of arcing and wear. Part II, scheduled for the May...
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (2): 4–8.
Published: 01 May 2018
...Gert Vogel This is the second article in a two-part series on the causes of failure in electromechanical relays. Part I, in the February 2018 issue of EDFA , examines a variety of failures caused by the formation of oxide on contact surfaces. As the author explains, electric arcing in the presence...
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (2): 4–8.
Published: 01 May 2001
... exist simultaneously. This article discusses the conditions under which such failures occur and explains how to minimize their effects if not prevent them. Copyright © ASM International® 2001 2001 ASM International copper corrosion dc coils relays solenoid valves httpsdoi.org/10.31399...
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (3): 21–24.
Published: 01 August 1999
...John R. Devaney Scanning electron microscopes can be used to analyze almost anything that conducts electricity and is prone to failure, including relays, coils, inductors, capacitors, resistors, transistors, diodes, IGBTS, MOSFETS, and hybrid circuits. As the author of the article explains, SEMs...
EDFA Technical Articles (2001) 3 (4): 37–39.
Published: 01 November 2001
...Stan Silvus This article presents three failure analysis case histories involving the use of silver in electrical applications. The first two failures, that of a relay and a trimming potentiometer, highlight the incompatibilities of silver and sulfur. The third failure, in which several surface...
EDFA Technical Articles (2004) 6 (4): 26–31.
Published: 01 November 2004
... coalesces into circumferential cracks in the solder joint, and these cracks deepen until catastrophic failure occurs. Copyright © ASM International® 2004 2004 ASM International circuit boards circumferential cracks crazing device pins power relays solder joints httpsdoi.org/10.31399...
EDFA Technical Articles (2006) 8 (3): 6–11.
Published: 01 August 2006
..., relays, solenoid valves, motors, magnetic sensors, and other wound components is an electrically open wire. There are quite a few mechanisms that can lead to a break in a wire, and deciding which one caused the failure usually involves inspection of the ends of the severed wire. Scanning electron...
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (3): 1–28.
Published: 01 August 1999
... allows complete characterization. However, for mixed are routed to/from the IC as the test frequency changes. For signal and analog, either rack and stack, measurement in- signals up to and including most of the IF spectrum, a relay struments assembled together and controlled with a small matrix is used...
EDFA Technical Articles (2009) 11 (1): 6–12.
Published: 01 February 2009
... as the cause of electrical damage. Were there any differences in the manufacturer s testing of the samples compared to the production lot? There were no changes to the test program, but the test engineer and maintenance records revealed that, as the volume of testing increased, relays on the associated test...
EDFA Technical Articles (1999) 1 (2): 15–16.
Published: 01 May 1999
.... In- laboratory disassembly of several failed switches, and their Some passive components (e.g., relays and switches) have coils, revealed that the fine insulated magnet wire in the moving parts and electrical contacts. Moving parts are often lubricated, and a common failure mechanism, particularly in altemating...
EDFA Technical Articles (2004) 6 (3): 4–11.
Published: 01 August 2004
... orthogonally in different, vertically offset planes in very close proximity. The switch mechanism that, in principle, can be applied to a wide class of nanowire structures is shown in Fig. 4. The switch acts as a latching nano-relay that operates through electrostatic attraction/repulsion forces using...
EDFA Technical Articles (2012) 14 (1): 14–20.
Published: 01 February 2012
... of the Galaxy IV communications satellite failed when two of its metal contacts were bridged by a tin whisker, resulting in widespread pager outages, disruptions to television broadcasting, and the complete loss of the satellite. Similar failures in pure tin-plated relays led to the loss of Galaxy VII...
EDFA Technical Articles (2013) 15 (2): 4–13.
Published: 01 May 2013
... not know that dc-to-dc converters or surface-mount technology print relays include inductivities as well. They assume these IC-like black boxes are just filled with semiconductor devices and structures, and they never take into account the inductive response. Table 3 shows some examples of frequently...
EDFA Technical Articles (2000) 2 (3): 4–7.
Published: 01 August 2000
... to structures contain moving parts with impacting sur- supply the drive signals are required. faces, such as relays and valve pumps. Class 4 devices contain moving parts with impacting and rubbing sur- faces. This class of MEMS includes shutters, scanners, locks, discriminators, and optical switches5. MEMS...
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (1): 32–35.
Published: 01 February 2018
... A or more on an unlimited power bus. This could occur if power is applied with a switch, such as a relay, on the power bus, leading to possible damage to the power bus and the switch. In a high-reliability space application, inrush current suppression circuitry (ICSC) is important and necessary to suppress...
EDFA Technical Articles (2019) 21 (1): 26–31.
Published: 01 February 2019
... by a sudden change of duty cycle. Some examples are as follows: There is no soft-start circuit, or the soft-start time is very short, and the DC/DC converter starts up at step input voltage with a switch, such as a relay. This rarely occurs because there is generally a softstart circuit with a working...
EDFA Technical Articles (2010) 12 (4): 4–10.
Published: 01 November 2010
... is a custom system with a 25 m pixel pitch InGaAs sensor, a 1× relay optic, and an apochromatic near-IR (NIR) 50× long-workingdistance objective. The NIR objective has a numerical aperture of 0.42, which translates to a resultant collection half-angle of 24.8°. The field of view of the camera...
EDFA Technical Articles (2015) 17 (4): 22–28.
Published: 01 November 2015
... parallel to components that can act as mechanical stabilizers against bending, for example, dual-in-line semiconductor chips, relays, and so on. They should be kept as far as possible from the PCB edges, from plugged or screwed connectors, and from on-board push-button switches. Whenever the application...
EDFA Technical Articles (2018) 20 (4): 16–22.
Published: 01 November 2018
... electrostatic dissipative over time. Noise pulses from electric motor commutators decrease when the carbon contact pads are ground in toward the round shape of the commutator (Fig. 1). Contact behavior in relays and switches degrades due to vibration, corrosive gases, and fretting or curing. Corrosion...
EDFA Technical Articles (2017) 19 (2): 10–20.
Published: 01 May 2017
... these diffracted positrons to develop an interference pattern, which relays information about the arrangement of the atoms at the surface of a metal or semiconductor. P ositrons penetrate to an average depth that increases with their initial kinetic energy. During this process, the positrons undergo repeated...